Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus
   (Valenciennes, 1837)

Common names: English: Crystal goby
German: Kristallgrundel

Common synonyms: none.

Length: 6 - 8 cm.

Yellowish-grey with 4 round black spots along middle of body. D1: anterior part black, black spot at distal part. Males: D1 with 2 black dots, belly yellowish.

Eyes in distance of less than half eye-diameter from each other (see D. colonianus). Anal opening in distance to anal fin. D1: elongated second ray. Males: second finray very elongated. Praedorsal area and nape scaled.
33-36 scales in lateral series.
Fins: D1 VI; D2 I+8-9; A I+8-9; P 17-20.

Carnivorous; small benthic animals, mainly crustaceans.

Spawning season March to July.

4 - 150 m, females also in 2 m; more abundant in 30 - 50 m. On sand and sometimes on mud, without any protection. Escapes with a kind of short jump. Less common. In some areas common.

Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus
Photograph: David Luquet ©



Species list
General info


Mediterranean; West-Mediterranean, Adriatic, Greece, Turkey; Atlantic.


Literature on Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus

Ahnelt H. & J. Dorda, 2004: Gobioid fishes from the north eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: new records and rarely found species. Ann. Nat. Hist. Mus. Wien 105B: 5-19.

Ahnelt H. & G. Scattolin, 2005: The pattern of the mechanosensory lateral fine on the caudal fin of the two deep-water gobiid fishes Deltentosteus collonianus and Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus (Teleostei: Gobiidae). J. Nat. His. 39: 4127-4135.

Bilecenoglu M., Taskavak E., Mater S. 6 Kaya M., 2002: Checklist of the marine fishes of Turkey. Zootaxa 113: 1194.

De Buen E., 1923: Gobius de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares. Grupos Lesueurii, Colonianus, Affinis y Minutus. Mem. Inst. eso. Oceonaogr. 3: 121-266.

Demestre M., P. Sanchez & P. Abello, 2000: Demersal fish assemblages and habitat characteristics on the continental shelf and upper slope of the north-western Mediterranean. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 80: 981-988.

Fage L., 1918: Shore-fishes. Rep. Dan. oceanogr. Exped. Mediterr. 2, Biology. (A. 3): 154 p.

Guemes P.J., L. de Ambrosio & J. Dorda, 1994: Los pesces recogidfos en al campana oceanografica "Fauna I" (sur le Penninsula Iberica). Graellisia 50: 147-159.

Ilkyaz A.T., Metin G. & Kinacigil H.T., 2011: The use of otolith length and weight measurements in age estimations of three Gobiidae species (Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus, Gobius niger, and Lesueurigobius friesii). Turkish Journal of Zoology 35: 819-827.

Kovacic M., 2005: An annotated checklist of the family Gobiidae in the Adriatic Sea. Annales Ser. hist. nat. 15: 1-24.

Kovacic M., 2020: Checklist of gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) of the Mediterranean Sea and a key for species identification. Zootaxa 4877: 075-101.

Kovacic M. & Patzner R.A., 2011: North-Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Gobies. In: The Biology of Gobies. (Eds: Patzner R.A. et al.) Science Publishers: 177-206.

Kovacic M., Sanda R. & Kirincic M., Zanella D., 2012: Geographic distribution of gobies (Gobiidae) in the Adriatic Sea with thirteen new records for its southern part. Cybium 36: 435-445.

Lombarte A., Miletic M. & Kovacic M. et al., 2014: Identifying Mediterranean Sea gobies using otoliths. 5th Int. symp. fish otolith res. appl., Peguera, Mallorca: Poster.

Louisy P., 2002: Meeresfische, Westeuropa, Mittelmeer. Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Mckay S. I. & P.J. Miller, 1997: The affinities of European sand gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae). J. Nat. Hist. 31: 1457-1482.

Metin G., Ilkyaz A.T., Soykan O. et al., 2011: Age, growth and reproduction of four-spotted goby, Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus (Valenciennes, 1837), in Izmir Bay (central Aegean Sea). Turkish Journal of Zoology 35: 711-716.

Miller P. J., 1986: Gobiidae. In: Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume III. (Eds.: Whitehead P.J.P. et al.) pp. 1019-1085. UNESCO, Paris.

Neumann V. & T. Paulus, 2005: Mittelmeeratlas. Megus, Melle.

Padoa E., 1953: Sottordine Gobiiformes. Famiglia Gobiidae in uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo Napoli, 38: 648-678.

Patzner R.A. & H. Moosleitner, 1999: Die Grundeln des Mittelmeeres. Teil 5. Kleine Grundeln des Weichbodens 1. Das Aquarium 357: 50-54.

Saad A., 2005: Check-list of bony fish collected from the coast of Syria. Turkish J. Fish. Aqu. Sci. 5: 99-106.

Valenciennes, A., 1837: Ichthyologie des Iles Canaries, ou histoire naturelle des poissons rapportes par MM. Webb et Berthelot. In: P. B. Webb et S. Berthelot, Histoire naturelle des Iles Canaries. Paris 2: 1-109, (plates: 1, 3-4, 8, 11-12).

Villiers L., 1980: Changes in predation by the juvenile goby Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Neth. J. Sea Res. 14: 362-373.

Villiers L., 1982: The feeding of juvenile goby Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus (Pisces, Gobiidae). Sarsia 67: 157-162.

Zander C.D., 1982: Feeding ecology of littoral gobiid and blennioid fish of the Banyuls area (Mediterranean Sea). 1. Main food and trophic dimension of niche and ecotope. Vie Milieu 32: 1-10.

Zander C.D. & J. Berg, 1984: Feeding ecology of littoral gobiid and blennioid fishes of the Banyuls area (Mediterranean Sea) 2. Prey selection and size preference. Vie Milieu 34: 149-157.








Photograph of Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus

Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus
Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia, 4 m depth, March 2008
Photograph: Mat Vestjens ©
Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus
Sargena, Italy, June 2016
Photograph: Roberto Pillon ©
Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus
Sargena, Italy, June 2016
Photograph: Roberto Pillon ©
Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus ,
Sargena, Italy, June 2016
Photograph: Roberto Pillon ©






Drawings of Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus


Drawings from Miller, 1986


Drawing from De Buen, 1923


Copyright © 2019 - Robert A. Patzner, Department of Biosciences, Univ. Salzburg, Austria.
State: 2019-06-11