Knipowitschia panizzae
   (Verga, 1841)

Common names: English: Lagoon goby
German: Lagunengrundel

Common synonym
Padogobius panizzai (Verga, 1841).

Length: 3 - 4 cm.

Brownish grey with pale saddles. Males with dark lateral spots and dark head. Females with dark spot on chin.

Anterior nostril short (tubular). Predorsal area and head naked.
32-39 scales in lateral series.
Fins: D1 VI (V-VI); D2 I+7-8 (7-9); A I+7-8; P 16 (15-17).

Carnivorous; invertebrates, zoobenthos, zooplankton; cannibalism (Nonnis-Marzano & Gandolfi, 2001).

Spawning season: April to August. Spawn after one year, every 10 - 15 days. Breed under mussel shells (Cerastoderma).

0 - 2 m. Lagoons, brackish water, freshwater. Common in some lagoons.

Knipowitschia panizzae, female
Photograph: Paul Veenvliet ©
Adriatic Sea



Species list
General info


Mediterranean: Adriatic Sea. Introduced in some places in western Italy.



Literature on Knipowitschia panizzae


Crivelli A.J., 1996: The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p.

Franco A, F. Riccato,S. Malavasi, P. Franzoi & T. Torricelli, 2006: Food resource utilization by gobies (Pisces, Teleostei) in the shallows of the Venice Lagoon. Biol. Mar. Medit. 13: 866-868.

Kovacic M., 2005: An annotated checklist of the family Gobiidae in the Adriatic Sea. Annales Ser. hist. nat. 15: 1-24.

Kovacic M., 2020: Checklist of gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) of the Mediterranean Sea and a key for species identification. Zootaxa 4877: 075-101.

Kovacic M. & Patzner R.A., 2011: North-Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Gobies. In: The Biology of Gobies. (Eds: Patzner R.A. et al.) Science Publishers: 177-206.

Lanzoni M., Gavioli A., Aschonitis V., Merighi M., Fano E.A. & G. Castaldelli, 2016: Length-weight relationships of three estuarine species in the Comacchio Lagoon, Po River delta, Italy. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 32: 1284-1285.

Lugli M. & Torricelli P., 1999: Prespawning sound production in Mediterranean sand-gobies. J. Fish Biol. 54: 691-694.

Marconato A., M.B. Rasotto, & C. Mazzoldi, 1996: On the mechanism of sperm release in three gobiid species (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Envir. Biol. Fish. 46: 321-327.

Miller P.J., 1972: Gobiid fishes of the Caspian genus Knipowitschia from the Adriatic Sea. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 52: 145-160.

Miller P.J., 1986: Gobiidae. In: Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume III. (Eds.: Whitehead P.J.P. et al.) pp. 1019-1085. UNESCO, Paris.

Miller P.J., 2004: Knipowitschia panizzae (Verga, 1841). In: The freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 8/II Gobiidae 2 (Ed.: Miller P.J.) pp. 405-414. Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim.

Nonnis-Marzano F. & G. Gandolfi, 2001: Active cannibalism among adults of Knipowitschia panizzae (Pisces Gobiidae) induced by starvation and reproduction. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 13: 385-391.

Papa R., F. Nonnis-Marzano, G. Gandolfi & J. Tagliavini, 2001: Evoluzione stagionale della struttura di popolazione di Knipowitschia panizzae (Tolostei [Teleostei], Gobiidae) rilevata attraverso misure di variabilita biochimica. Quaderni ETP. 30: 131-137.

Spinelli A., S. De Matteo, A. Costagliola et al. (2017): First record from Sicily of the Adriatic dwarf goby, Knipowitschia panizzae (Osteichthyes, Gobiidae), a threatened species or a threat for conservation? Marine Biodiversity 47: 237-242.

Vanhove M.P.M. et al., 2012: Phylogenetics and biogeography of the Balkan 'sandgobies' (Teleostei: Gobiidae): vulnerable species in need of taxonomic revision. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 105: 73-91.

Verga D., 1841: Descrizione di un nuovo Gobius frequente nelle lagune di Comacchio, con cenni anatomici sullo stesso. Atti. Riun. Sci. Ital. Firenze 3: 379.




Drawings of Knipowitschia panizzae




Drawings from Miller, 1986
Copyright © 2019 - Robert A. Patzner, Department of Biosciences, Univ. Salzburg, Austria.
State: 2019-07-16